Lena Macka is an illustrator and designer of minimal tattoos, who is based in the French city of Lyon. She seems to work mainly in black and white, and shades of grey, but look through her illustrations, and you will some colour works.
Jordan Debney is an illustrator, artist, and painter, based in Wellington, New Zealand. He is also a muralist, and an apparel designer. Be sure to check out more of his psyche-delicious work via his website, or on Instagram.
US economist and writer Tyler Cowen contends Americans are becoming ever more settled, and impervious to change. Are you one of them? Or, if you reside outside the US, are you likewise becoming complacent? Take the quiz, and find out.
He’s been a dishwasher, gas jockey, bartender, short-order cook, beekeeper, oil derrick bit re-tipper, plywood mill labourer and railway line worker. He’s taught mythology to lawyers, doctors and businessmen, consulted for the UN Secretary General’s High Level Panel on Sustainable Development, helped his clinical clients manage depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and schizophrenia, served as an advisor to senior partners of major Canadian law firms, identified thousands of promising entrepreneurs on six different continents, and lectured extensively in North America and Europe.
In case you end up with the worst possible rating, complacent, Cowen offers a number of suggestions for helping to break out of the mould at the conclusion of the quiz.
Why are there so many ways to brew coffee, yet hardly any for tea? It’s not something I’d really thought about, especially when it comes to coffee. A different beverage, such as cappuccino, requires its own method, right?
Coffee ground particles are porous; their structure looks a bit like that of a sponge, with little tunnels running through it. The soluble material that’s extracted is embedded throughout the walls of those little tunnels. In some ways, the extraction process sort of looks like the mine cart scene in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom when the water starts chasing them through the tunnels. The bigger the coffee particle, the longer the mine cart tunnel system inside that coffee particle, and the more time it will take the water to travel through it, extracting solubles as it goes. If it helps to imagine tiny versions of Indy, Willie, and Short Round being chased by the brewing water inside the coffee particle, feel free.
Fascinating, or what. But here’s what often happens when you make a cup of tea:
Polyphenols comprise a grouping of different plant compounds, like flavanols (and specifically catechins), that contribute body and structure as well as the general blueprint for a tea’s flavor profile. They’re also responsible for a tea’s bitterness. Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, contribute texture and savory qualities, and essential oils produce aromas and more delicate, complex flavors. Polyphenols dissolve and are extracted fairly quickly, while amino acids take more time, but essential oils are the ringer here: They don’t actually dissolve into a tea, because oils aren’t soluble in liquid. We need enough time during the steeping process for the water to break down the cellular structure of the leaf. This is what allows the essential oils to be released into the brewed tea, where they’ll exist as an integral part of the tasting experience – even though they’re mostly just floating on the surface.