But how does a leaf become superhydrophobic? The trick to this, Janine explained, is that the water isn’t really sitting on the surface. A superhydrophobic surface is a little like a bed of nails. The nails touch the water, but there are gaps in between them. So there’s fewer points of contact, which means the surface can’t tug on the water as much, and so the drop stays round.
Just because the design of a tool – or once upon a time – weapon, has changed little in centuries, should it be assumed it cannot be improved on in anyway? Take the axe, for example, were its current design to be given some thought, could a better chopping tool be forthcoming?
An open window would create powerful suction immediately around it, though it would not suck everything out as you see in movies. Mostly passengers inside would feel short of breath and start to pass out. Small objects might be pulled out the window. There would be a loud pop and after that, the sound of a power-sustained gust of wind, as air flowed out of the inside of the airplane. Air would keep flowing out of the open window until the pressure inside the plane was the same as the pressure outside – in most cases, this would mean making up about 22,000 feet worth of pressure in minutes.
All good design is a trade off. A bag of potato chips may be mildly difficult to open but the sealing process prevents it from opening sooner than intended.
Variations in atmospheric pressure, say as the chips are transported from a sea level to an area of high altitude, may be enough to cause the packets to open, something that most certainly necessitates a strong seal.
In a heat seal, you are attempting to melt the adhesive polymer and get it to flow into the other layer. Upon cooling, the two layers are now entangled and show adhesion. The strength of a heat-seal depends on three and only three variables: time, temperature and pressure. Increasing any of this will increase the strength of the bond, but most manufacturing engineers are really only open to increasing pressure. Increasing sealing time slows the entire process, and increase the sealing temperature also slows the process since it takes longer to heat the adhesives to the higher temperature, that adds to the time as well. The best option was to develop an adhesive that sealed at a lower temperature, something that was successfully accomplished, or so I’m led to believe from all the complaints that colleagues pile on me now that they know I’m that guy.
In Obayashi’s project, a cable would be stretched up to 96,000 kilometers, or about one-fourth of the distance between the Earth and the moon. One end of the cable would be anchored at a spaceport on the ground, while the other would be fitted with a counterweight. The terminal station would house laboratories and living space. The car could carry up to 30 people to the station at 200 kilometers per hour, which would mean a 7-1/2 day trip to reach the station. Magnetic linear motors are one possible means of propulsion for the car, according to Obayashi.